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  • Apodized phase contrast
    Apodized phase contrast
    viewing images with large phase difference with high clarity and detail without 'halo' effects
  • Brightfield
    light from the specimen and its surroundings is collected to form an image against a bright background
  • CLEM
    designed to minimize the light required for excitation in fluorescence microscopy without compromising image quality
  • Confocal
    eliminates out-of-focus light in specimens and enables 3-D imaging of thick specimens
  • Darkfield
    contrast technique where only light diffracted from the specimen is used to form the image
  • DIC
    allows structure in transparent to be visualized by exploiting changes in refractive index
  • FLIM
    fluorescence technique where contrast is based on the lifetime of individual fluorophores
  • FLIP
    a single region of the cell is bleached continuously to assess the direction of intracellular trafficking
  • Fluorescence
    the property of absorbing light of short wavelength and emitting light of longer wavelength
  • FRAP
    fluorophores in a selected region of the cell are bleached using laser light to make them inactive
  • FRET
    permits investigation of molecular interactions beyond the theoretical resolution limit of optical microscopy
  • Micromanipulation
    manipulation of microscopic specimens using micro-sized equipment such as optical tweezers
  • Multiphoton microscopy
    Multiphoton microscopy
    uses two or three-photon excitation for fluorophores in a specimen
  • NAMC
    enhances contrast by converting optical gradients into variations in light intensity
  • OCC
    light projected at the specimen from a sideways, slanting angle to reveal features with higher contrast
  • Optical Tweezers
    Optical Tweezers
    a technique for contact-free manipulation of microscopic particles using light
  • PA-GFP
    a form of GFP in which fluorescent intensity can be increased 100 fold after activation with 400nm light
  • Patch Clamp
    Patch Clamp
    Electrophysiology, measuring electrical current passing through single membrane channels in cells
  • Phase contrast
    Phase contrast
    Using changes in refractive index to produce high-contrast images of transparent specimens
  • Polarizing
    Exploiting the properties of polarized light to identify and characterize the structure and properties of materials
  • SIM
    Increases resolution by exploiting interference patterns created when two grids are overlaid at an angle
    Localization-based super-resolution technique.
  • Time-Lapse
    capturing images of dynamic events at predetermined regular time intervals
  • TIRF
    Technique that utilizes total internal reflection of the incident light to generate a thin volume of excitation light at the reflection interface.

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