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Neurobiology / Neuroscience
study of the biology or science of the nervous system

Neurobiology - the study of the biology or science of the nervous system

One of the difficulties in observing complex neural networks is that single neurons can extend deep into tissue sections, providing, therefore, only limited information. Nikon’s multiphoton microscope, the A1R MP+ with extended imaging range to 1300nm, combined with high NA, long working distance, water dipping lenses, enable deep tissue imaging at high speed with flexible MP fluorophore choices. The structure and function of the nervous system at both cellular and tissue levels can also be observed in detail using Nikon’s suite of confocal systems which includes the economical C2+ confocal and the powerful A1R+ confocal with real-time spectral unmixing and fast resonant scanners for high speed imaging in vivo.  Many neurobiology experiments require extremely high speed imaging to visualize ion signalling (eg. Calcium).  Nikon provides a variety of options to accommodate this need, including the resonant scanner on the A1R+, a high-speed field scanner (LiveScan SFC), and widefield systems equipped with high-speed cameras configured for triggered data acquisition to maximize speed.  Nikon’s Eclipse FN1 provides a microscope platform optimized for electrophysiology experiments with minimal electronic noise and a slim profile for flexible positioning of manipulators and other peripherals.  The open design of the FN1 also enables a high level of customization to accommodate a wide range of sample sizes, an important aspect for whole animal or large tissue imaging.  For optogenetics experiments involving photo-stimulation of cells or sub-cellular regions, Nikon’s point scanning confocal can be used to photo-stimulate custom ROIs.  For simpler photo-stimulation experiments, Nikon also provides a fixed spot illuminator that can be configured on both upright and inverted microscopes.  Nikon’s super-resolution microscopes N-SIM and N-STORM provide nanoscopic spatial resolution and can be used to visualize the molecular-level details of neuronal systems.  Nikon’s high N.A. fluorescence stereomicroscopes with large zoom ranges provides a seamless bridge between single neuron imaging on advanced imaging systems with whole embryo screening.

Imaging Challenges

How can I keep my cells alive for long periods of time in live cell imaging?

Light exposure (phototoxicity), temperature and time can affect the longevity of cells. Nikon’s BioStation CT and IM-Q time-lapse imaging incubator systems provide environmentally controlled incubation with integrated and automated microscope imaging – perfect for keeping cells alive over a long period of time.

BioStation CT

How do I overcome tissue autofluorescence?

You can overcome this with deep tissue imaging with:

  1. Nikon’s A1R MP+ Multiphoton imaging system with its extended excitation range up to 1300nm provides improved flexibility in choosing the optimal excitation wavelength for the fluorophore and may reduce auto fluorescence by avoiding excitation near 800nm.
  2.   Nikon’s A1+ confocal can be equipped with a spectral detector that enables identification and removal of autofluorescence.

How do I image dense tissue?

Very dense thick tissue makes sample imaging difficult.

You can achieve superior deep tissue imaging with:

  1. Nikon’s A1R MP+ Multiphoton imaging system provides excitation wavelengths up to 1300nm.  Longer excitation wavelengths reduce light scatter and enable deeper tissue penetration.
  2. Nikon’s Eclipse FN1 provides a flexible structure that can be customized to accommodate large samples.
  3. Nikon’s multiphoton CFI75 Apochromat 25xW MP objective lens with its long working distance and high N.A. is also designed for high
Eclipse FN1

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